2014-09-13

Ukraine prepares for a guerilla war against Russian agression: general tips on how to survive conventional wars

1.0.1 - draft

Using tips from their brothers who survived the Bosnian war that started in 1992, Ukrainian civilians, pro-Kiev and pro-Novorussia alike, prepare to survive the newest civil war. The reasons thereof are long forgotten now. It may have broken out due to extremist hatred, nationalism and aggression: both from the Right Sector (aka "fascists, ukrops, naziguards, executioners", etc.) or from the Russia's Russians and the Ukrainian cousins (aka "federalists, rebels, New Russians, Colorado beetles, vatniki" etc.), both sides driven by other hidden puppet masters. Few remember now, and even fewer care what it all was about. More and more people simply struggle to survive.
Bosnia civil war, 1992


Below is my quick Google-based translation of an informal and irreverently practical civil defence handbook (original here) published by a Bosnian war survivor.

Why I publish it, although I do not live in Ukraine? Cause it may come in handy also in other neighbouring countries soon...


Civil war survival handbook adapted for Ukraine's 2014 conflict

The vast majority of Ukrainian citizens just want to quietly live in peace. They do not care about the jumping Nazi idiots with blue and yellow or red and black flags. But the country is already at war. And soon the economic death throes of the country will make every other citizen take up arms. Not to wage war, but to protect themselves and their families. In this article we discuss how to properly defend oneself. We base our advice partially on Yugoslavia where during those years [of civil war] there was exactly the same situation as it now obtains in Ukraine.

Remember two main rules:
1. Death lurks in the city! Get out of the cities.
2. Lone operators are
soon dead! Create as large a [defence] unit as possible - only a big team of closely collaborating allied families or houses [survive].

Those who have a lot of money or have relatives in Russia - [I advise to] quickly leave Ukraine, from all areas, not just from the warring southeast. The fact is that in spite of the total pro-Urkainian propaganda in the [Ukrainian] media, many people's brains still operate. [If you] understand that the country is facing the [dire straits of the] fall and winter [due to fuel shortages, devaluation, ongoing war etc.], so you should leave it [while you still can]. Is it right or wrong to leave one's homeland - it is not for us to judge, and let us not talk about it. Let's get started [instead].

  Leave the city.

Yes, right now. Ideal if you have relatives / friends in the villages / villages / hamlets. Leave by going to them. If not - sell the [city] apartment and buy any house in the countryside.

Sell everything you do not need to survive.

Your apartment, garage, car, home, audio, video equipment, all sorts of expensive iPhones and other rubbish. (That is assuming that you already have a place to live in the village / hamlet / village)

Prepare your new place

Gather a citizens' assembly of all [neighbouring] farms, villages, and villages. Discuss the main question: - When during the fall-winter the cities have nothing to eat, then the  countryside will be invaded by hungry gangs. They will consist of local ideological fighters and of ordinary citizens who have nothing to give to their children. but the worst component will be the armed militia / military units, who will try to "shake" the village for food. Discuss these questions as you will [need to] defend your place. The most important thing for each local farm is forg everyone to understand it.


Defend the farm

To prepare for the above, you will need to strengthen the farm or village:
  • Set up checkpoints on all roads, footpaths and approaches
  • Dig ditches, trenches, install barbed wire in the forests / plantations
  • Install a public address system with a siren / loudspeaker or intercoms for all the houses

Communicate with other farms

  • Buy mobile radios for communication between the checkpoints
  • Purchase one common HF radio (transceiver) for communicating with other villages, with Russia and with other countries.
Remember: communication lines are the priority in any war.  

Try for a moment to imagine that you live for a day without a mobile phone, radio phone TV, Internet. A total information blockade! Scary? Get used to it [as it will happen]. But even worse is when everything [the war] starts and you will be cut off from communications, when you're completely in the dark about the situation in the country and in the world, and even about what is happening 15km away at a nearby farm. If, however, the connection will link the two closest farms - it will be very useful when helping each other, when one of the villages is attacked by looters.

Generate electricity

Buy a generator. Energy for all cannot be generated from diesel generators [only]: it is too expensive, but for one home - you can [install it]. In such a case, have at least one generator [ready], from which you will charge the radio, flashlights and so on. Accordingly, a large amount of fuel is needed.

Prepare fuel for the farm

There is nothing surprising and complex: have a supply of coal, wood for heating. And buy propane tank for the gas cookers.

Prepare food

Here, too, prepare [for war] without any frills: procure the maximum amount of cereals, porridge, potatoes, flour, vegetables, canned food.

Buy [lots of] medicines

Every home should have its own first-aid kit. It's so obvious, but already now you need to fill it up, taking into account the fact that in the next half-year pharmacies nearby will stop operating.

Barter 

Apart from the looters and gangs, the countryside will be visited by the relatively honest people from other regions, who will ask you to barter goods and services. Therefore the whole village should stockpile things that will always cost more than gold:
  • Tea / coffee / salt / spices
  • Cigarette / tobacco
  • Sugar / sweets
  • Yeast [for wine making] / alcohol
  • Matches / gas lighter (refillable) / lighter refills
  • Candles / flashlights / batteries / kerosene
  • Fishing gear
These staple products during the occupation and the war in Yugoslavia were worth more than gold.

Buy weapons

Now as the country is at war, acquisition of weapons is not particularly problematic. The main thing - [buy] the maximum stock of ammunition. A very important condition is the presence of automatic weapons in the village. We cannot dream here of using the NSV machine gun [or a similar heavy machine gun], as it is too posh a model, but a regular Kalash-equipped stands must be installed. As demonstrated during the Yugoslav war, with simple shotguns and rifles you will not be able to defend yourself.

Water supply 

Provide maximum protection for the wells, water intakes, the approaches to the river or the lakes. Without food, you can still survive, but if you are besieged and have no water you will never last long.

That's all. As long as there is light, and the Internet works, read the evidence [my blog on] surviving in a war: http://www.odnagdy.com/2013/02/blog-post_24.html



============
Left to translate: 

What to do when the shooting starts:


Как выжить если идут боевые действия в городе.


Когда начнется стрельба - немедленно ложитесь. Нет, я неправильно выразился - падайте! В квартире на пол, под окно. На улице - куда придется, желательно ногами в сторону выстрелов, чтобы уменьшить площадь поражения. Только не вздумайте выбирать место почище. Плюхайтесь, где стоите. Хоть даже в лужу.
Как говорят военные - лучше испачкаться грязью, чем своей кровью. И лишь потом, оглядевшись, переползайте в более надежное место. Лучше всего в подземный переход, через низко расположенное окно в подвал или, разбив окно, в квартиру первого этажа. При их отсутствии - в канаву, за столб, бетонный бордюр, мусорный бак, урну и пр.
Выбирая в качестве укрытия машины, предпочитайте грузовики. Они мощнее легковушек и потому лучше защищают от пуль. При этом надо выбирать те части машины, где больше железа, и стараться держаться подальше от бензобака. Кабина - прикрытие сомнительное, так как прошивается пулей насквозь!
Перерывы в стрельбе используйте для тихого, по-английски, ухода. Или смены укрытия на более надежное. Только делайте это крайне осторожно! То, что стрельба утихла, еще ничего не значит. Тишина боя - обманчива! В связи с этим передвигайтесь только ползком, а не перебегайте. На бегущего человека почти все стрелки реагируют одинаково - мгновенной очередью от бедра.
Все вещи лучше бросить и уходить налегке. Подтаскивание ползущим человеком каких-то подозрительных предметов может быть истолковано, как смена позиций вооруженным противником. Именно поэтому :
! Опасно поднимать встретившееся вам на пути оружие. Для гражданского человека от него больше вреда, чем пользы. Потому что в человека оружием имеет право стрелять без предупреждения кто угодно. Хоть те, хоть эти.
При неожиданной встрече с вооруженными людьми вы должны... Да не улыбаться и не совать им руки для рукопожатия. А мгновенно вскинуть эти руки вверх. Это универсальный жест доброй воли, буквально обозначающий - не стреляйте в меня, у меня нет оружия, я безопасен. И лишь потом лезьте за документами.
Перестрелка в вашем доме
! Находясь в квартире, старайтесь не приближаться к окнам. Окна во время боя представляют собой наибольшую угрозу.
Строго говоря, безопасных мест в комнате, попавшей под обстрел, нет! Спрятавшись за подоконником или стеной от прямых попаданий, вы можете погибнуть от срикошетивших от потолка и стен пуль. Поэтому сразу после начала стрельбы мгновенно выключите свет, чтобы вас не было видно. Только не вставая в полный рост, а с пола, дотянувшись до выключателя какой-нибудь палкой (шваброй, лентяйкой, трубой пылесоса). А проще - разбивайте лампочку, бросив в нее тяжелый предмет.
При одиночной стрельбе можно прижаться к стене за окном и сбоку, той же импровизированной палкой, задернуть шторы, чтобы стрелок не мог заметить ваши передвижения по комнате. А потом выключить свет.
! В любом случае, даже если прозвучал один выстрел, надо, использовав паузу в стрельбе, переползти в помещение, не подпадающее под обстрел, а лучше не имеющее окон.
При интенсивной и особенно вертикальной стрельбе лучше переползти в ванную комнату и лечь в ванну, которая, благодаря своей толщине, может защитить вас от пуль и осколков. И не вздумайте высовываться на улицу с целью выяснения обстановки! При ожидании боя можно вывесить на окнах заметный издалека плакат - "В этом здании мирные жители! Не стреляйте!" Или белый флаг.
Если к вам в квартиру вломятся бойцы и станут передвигать, ломать и валить на пол мебель, не пытайтесь им препятствовать! Это для вас ваша квартира - квартира. А для них всего лишь удобная огневая точка. И если они устроили такую суету, значит, не исключено, что скоро в ваши окна будут стрелять и бросать гранаты. Потому лучше тихо уйдите куда-нибудь к соседям.
И там, пока не перебиты трубы, попытайтесь запастись водой. Причем лучше это сделать заранее. Используйте все имеющиеся у вас емкости, вплоть до пол-литровых банок и полиэтиленовых пакетов. Наберите полную ванну (при обстреле ее нетрудно опорожнить). Вода пригодится вам для приготовления пищи, умывания, но больше всего для тушения пожара. Взрывы гранат и попадание трассирующих пуль в легковоспламеняющиеся покрытия и мебель чреваты их возгоранием.
Приедут ли к вам пожарные машины - сомнительно. Так что придется рассчитывать на себя и свою воду. Но не начинайте, тушение пожара, пока бой не закончится! Не лишним будет запастись песком. Например, насыпав его в мешки. Кроме тушения пожара песок, вернее, мешки с песком пригодятся для защиты от пуль и осколков. Ими можно обложить место, где вы спите, или заделать одно из окон (желательно выходящее во двор, чтобы оно не привлекало внимания). Мешки с песком широко использовались в уличных боях почти во всех войнах.
Продуктами питания тоже лучше запастись заранее. С тем, чтобы не бегать в магазин (или на колонку за водой, если вы ее не запасли), когда засвистят пули. А если выходить, то только в сугубо мирной одежде. Наброшенный на плечи плащ цвета хаки, офицерская фуражка или рубаха защитного цвета могут стоить вам жизни. Потому что во время боя стреляют не в человека, а в форму. И если вы надели одежду военного образца, значит, вы, сами того не зная, приравняли себя к солдатам противника.
Особенно важно объяснить это детям! Они обожают военную амуницию. И обожают подражать военным. Например, как это стало сейчас модным, повязывать на головы "спецназовские" платки или размалевывать лицо. Любым способом надо внушить им, что это опасно! Что лучше быть без платка, но живым, чем в платке или каске, но мертвым.
Кроме напоминающей форму, не рекомендуется надевать одежду ярких расцветок, по которым очень соблазнительно пристреливать оружие. И не таскать предметы, даже отдаленно напоминающие стрелковое оружие. Не принимайте поз, похожих на позы изготовки к стрельбе. А то вы взгромоздите на плечо рулон ковра, а кто-нибудь решит, что вы наводите на него неизвестной системы гранатомет. И успеет выстрелить первым.
О жизни в городе, где идут или только что закончились полномасштабные военные действия, я расскажу очень коротко. Так как надеюсь, что до настоящей войны дело не дойдет. Если у людей, оказавшихся в районе боевых действий, есть время, то им следует подготовить импровизированные убежища.
На случай артобстрелов и бомбежек лучше всего вырыть где-нибудь на пустыре "землянки в три наката". В крайнем случае щели. Для защиты от стрелкового оружия оборудовать убежище в подвале, предварительно укрепив и благоустроив его. И обязательно запасти воду, еду, теплые вещи, осветительные приборы, медикаменты и примусы для приготовления горячей пищи. Из подвала должно быть как минимум два выхода. Место отдыха желательно обложить мешками с песком.
От выхода из убежища до водоисточника лучше прокопать канаву-окопчик, по которому можно передвигаться на четвереньках. В крайнем случае, создать по дороге максимум укрытий. Очень много людей гибнут при вынужденных походах за водой, без которой в отличие от еды трудно прожить даже несколько дней.
"Школа выживания в условиях экономического кризиса"
Андрей Ильичев.

How to sleep when your house is bombed

Многие советы по выживанию в диких условиях, знакомые нам по фильмам и телепередачам, на самом деле ошибочны и даже смертельно опасны.
Давайте с ними разберёмся:
1. Если оказавшись в одиночестве в диких местах вы перво-наперво займётесь добычей пропитания, то можете совершить ошибку, поскольку на самом деле без нее можно прожить несколько дней. Разумней будет поберечь силы для того, что имеет действительно первостепенную важность – найти убежище и не допустить обезвоживания.
2. Вы думаете, убежище – значит крыша над головой. На самом деле, это означает место для сна. Холодная земля гораздо опаснее холодного ветра. Соорудите себе «постель» из сухой растительности, чтобы сохранить тепло.
3.Вы думаете, что нужно беречь воду как можно дольше, в то время как вашему организму неважно, как сильно вы будете хотеть пить потом. Вода нужна вам сейчас. Некоторые заблудившиеся туристы умирали, всё еще имея запас питьевой воды, потому что до последнего старались её экономить. Так что пейте!
4.Вы думаете, нужно пить собственную урину, чтобы поддерживать уровень жидкости в организме. В действительности это приведет к перегрузке механизмов терморегуляции организма. Пописайте лучше на бандану – в жару это поможет остудиться.
5. Считается, что нужно высосать яд из раны в случае змеиного укуса. На самом деле это принесет лишь дополнительный ущерб органам дыхания и желудку. Поэтому не паникуйте и ищите помощь.

2014-09-12

Ebola 14: False negative ebola tests - denials, wrong analytical methods or criminal falsification of results

1.1.0

Further to my other ebola posts, here I will be collecting only reports on the low sensitivity of ebola tests, that is their false negative results (read more about these medical terms here), which are doubly deadly for the unsuspecting carers.

Let's start with Sierra Leone:


On July 19, Moussa Kotuneh fell sick after returning to Pujehun from a trip to Kenema. Immediately, the ambulance was called, and he was taken to the testing site in Daru, 25 kilometers away. He was tested and declared free of the disease. He was sent home with a document declaring him Ebola free. The staff suggested he be observed for the next 21 days in case he got worse.
Kenema hospital cum lab

Jefrey Morison is a trained community health worker who grew up in Pujehun. He spoke with people after Kotuneh came back. “There was lots of confusion about what to do,” he said. The document said he did not have Ebola, but Jefrey urged everyone in the town to be vigilant. “I said, ‘You must continue to isolate him.’”

Kotuneh got worse, and he died soon after returning to Pujehun.
 ...
a close friend of Kotuneh’s died, and the villagers called the ambulance team again. This time, the ambulance took six suspected contacts away to isolation. Days later, they were all dead.

...
“They should have never [let Kotuneh] back to Pujehun,” Jefrey said. 

Who was right? The doctors who gave the "free from ebola" stamped fancy certificate or the hard common-sense instincts of self-preservation shown by the suspecting villagers?

Dr. Brantly first felt ill [with ebola on] July 23 but tested negative.
[source] 

He was not alone here:
Rev. Brother Patrick Nshamdze: On the 17th of this month, his specimen was taken and the result, which came on the next day (July 18), proved negative...
The ailing Catholic hospital director decided to seek further treatment abroad, but his trip was subjected to Ebola test... he did another test on Tuesday, July 29, 2014, which proved positive, contrary to the first test he underwent.
and then:

Following the [Patrick and Princess] Sawyers death health workers at the hospital began to show signs of the deadly virus, but denial again reigned. Sources say when the healthcare workers at the hospital began to notice that Brother Nshamdze was showing signs of the disease, they admonished him to do a test to find out whether he had the virus, since in fact he had come in contact with the Sawyers.

But he was also in denial and because of that, did not show the true outcome of the first test that came out positive. But, how a negative result was pronounced that came back two weeks later as positive is still a puzzle that Liberians are trying to piece together.

Sources tell FrontPageAfrica that after the result came back negative, the Catholic brother told his colleagues that all was well and they kept caring for him because they felt he was suffering from a heart disease that was his known medical condition. It was when a second test was done on him that came out positive after he tried to leave the country while critically ill did his colleagues begin to cut off contact with him but it was too late. He died on August 2, 2014 and the death roll continued after that.
Source


Read also my separate post about another case of  "miraculous death" of a medic


Some of the tests currently used to diagnose EBOV might fail to work in the presence of these genetic changes—meaning they could give false negative test results in some people who are actually infected with the virus.
Source: Using Genomics to Follow the Path of Ebola


Ebola is generally detected in a patient’s blood specimen by RT - PCR by the third day of symptoms. Testing too early could result in a false negative test.
Laboratory Bio safety Considerations for Handling Specimens from Patients Designated as “Suspect Ebola”

This latency is confirmed in medical literature:
It can test negative in early stages.
[Source: Pathology of Experimental Aerosol Zaire Ebolavirus Infection in Rhesus Macaques]

Some of the ebola tests: are all performed at once?


Asymptomatic patients

The health worker had a temperature of 99.5 Fahrenheit (37.5 Celsius) before she boarded her flight, he added.
Health care workers who had been exposed to Duncan were undergoing self-monitoring. They were allowed to travel ...

The risk of exposure to the passengers who were on the plane with Vinson is low [my comment: and thus exists!], since she did not yet have symptoms, health officials said Wednesday.

Source


8 OCT: 
Vinson flew from Dallas-Fort Worth to Cleveland a week ago, on October 8, said Toinette Parrilla, director of the Cleveland Department of Public Health.

10 OCT:
Frontier Airlines, however, said she traveled to Ohio on October 10 -- and specifically asked people who may have been on a flight on that date to contact the CDC at 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).

13 OCT: 
The woman "exhibited no symptoms or sign of illness while on Flight 1143, according to the crew," Frontier Airlines said in a statement.
...
The CDC, in a joint news release with Frontier, said it wanted to speak only with passengers on the October 13 flight. The CDC later confirmed to CNN that it is "only interested" in the passengers on Flight 1143.

16 OCT: CDC is also "interested" in the passengers etc. on the previous flights of this nurse and on the subsequent flights of the same aircraft. In practice, health authorities arrest (quarantine) some staff and passengers. "She may have been symptomatic after all", claims CDC.



Sacra, a family physician from Worcester, Massachusetts, wasn’t treating Ebola patients when he got infected. He was helping pregnant women. Like Writebol and Brantly before him, when a fever came on, he desperately hoped it was malaria and not Ebola. 
NBC


One of the patients receiving treatment after testing positive to the deadly Ebola Virus, was wrongly diagnosed and did not have the virus, the Minister of Health, Onyebuchi Chukwu, said Monday.
[source]



During both outbreaks we identified some individuals in direct contact with sick patients who never developed symptoms.

FINDINGS: 11 of 24 asymptomatic individuals developed both IgM and IgG responses to Ebola antigens, indicating viral infection. Western-blot analysis showed that IgG responses were directed to nucleoprotein and viral protein of 40 kDa. The glycoprotein and viral protein of 24 kDa genes showed no nucleotide differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Asymptomatic individuals had a strong inflammatory response characterised by high circulating concentrations of cytokines and chemokines.

INTERPRETATION: This study showed that asymptomatic, replicative Ebola infection can and does occur in human beings.

Interestingly, we have observed a similarly strong inhibition phenomenon [impeding positive identification of ebola] with plasma from a moribund patient with acute Ebola hemorrhagic fever from Gulu, Uganda ...



False-negative RT-PCR results are likely to occur for patients with severe viral hemorrhagic fevers, especially in the acute phase of the disease where a rapid confirmation is required. Their plasma may contain large amounts of RT-PCR inhibitors, probably resulting from the decay of tissue.


Between 26 June and 1 September 2014, 138 patients were discharged from the Kailahun Ebola case management centre (CMC) in Sierra Leone, as non-Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, because they tested negative for the virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of these, 15 returned to the CMC within 21 days of their first admission and subsequently nine tested positive for Ebola virus. This raised the question as to whether CMCs could be acting as potential amplifiers of infection even though appropriate infection control measures are being followed. 

Eurosurveillance


They tell us about a survivor in their community. He came back from the treatment centre, but despite testing negative for the virus infected his girlfriend, who died.
Source: BBC


The American doctor is thought to have contacted it while having dinner with another health worker that was developing a fever.

source

Times scales vary for all of this [period of being infecting] from a few days from beginning to recover until virus negative (except semen) and a few weeks.  
Guardian, interview with surviving doctor



AP: But I think back, too, what happened with the baby at the hospital—whose mother came in and died, and the baby was in a box. They tested the baby and the baby was negative. But I think the symptoms in babies and the disease progression in babies is different than adults.

MD: Right.

AP: So the nurses would pick up and cuddle the baby. And they were taking care of the baby in the box. And then twelve of them got Ebola. And one survived.

MD: Because they couldn't just watch a baby sitting alone in a box.

By the time we had arrived more than 20 nurses had died from Ebola. 

source


  
[A heroic doctor] contracted Ebola from a patient who went into cardiac arrest. [...] this patient didn’t have any of Ebola’s usual symptoms, McDonald said: No fever. No vomiting or diarrhea. No bleeding. No reason to suit up. So when the man’s heart stopped, Brisbane went in without the full protective gear health workers touching Ebola patients should wear. He did CPR. He ventilated him. He hooked him up to the usual series of tubes and wires. “And that’s what happened,” McDonald said, tearing up, as she described the last case Brisbane worked on.
...
Source - an eye-opening Buzzfeed article.

The virus mutates rapidly

Thursday’s study also details hundreds of genetic mutations that make the current Ebola outbreak different from any in the past. Some of those changes have the potential to affect the accuracy of diagnostic tests or the effectiveness of vaccines and treatments under development for the disease.
There are many, too many, ebola strains by now
source

The diagnostic tests now in use, as well as drugs and vaccines under consideration, are based on the Central African strain and might not work well on this outbreak. For example, a diagnostic test in use now might not give a clear positive if a victim had a low viral load early in an infection.
source

Falsified tests:
Breaking News: Mr. Musa Bangura the lab technician who was arrested in Kenema government hospital in Sierra Leone for manipulating Ebola data – changing sample results from positive to negative and charging patients for as little as Le30,000 ($6.00) has escaped from custody.
[Source]


President of the Sierra Leone Laboratory Association (SLLA) has distanced his organization from the alleged falsification of Ebola test results by one of its members at the Kenema Government Hospital. Laboratory Technician, Musa Bangura is alleged to have demanded cash payment from patients tested to manipulate their test results.
[Source]

Results falsified by infected politicians: the case of the vile Patrick Sawyer:

There is no evidence to suggest that the employee has been infected. Under the Ministry of Health guidelines, the employee is being monitored on a daily basis and will continue to do so for a period of 21 days. [...] Doctors say the risk of potential transfer to any member of the ArcelorMittal staff or contractors is very low. [...] The deputy minister personally admitted approving the trip in an online discussion forum, where some Liberian citizens raised questions about his action and competence."
[source]



2014-09-10

How to be a good Muslim, according to Shia fatwas

Ver 1.1.3

How to live in virtue and glory, according to Shia Muslim clerics

Source of wisdom: Office of the Supreme Leader of Iran website, the FAQ section (see the archived original).
The comments are mine.





On the use of Washing Machines in Islam


Q: Do the najis clothes washed in a fully automatic washing machine become pure?
A: After the inherently najis material is removed, if the water, connected through a pipe, goes into the machine and reaches the clothes as well as all the parts inside the washing machine, separates from it and is drawn out; then the clothes are considered pure.


Are Dead Cells of the Skin dirty?


Q: There are some dead cells of the skin that at times fall off from the hands, lips and feet. Are they pure or najis?
A: The fine skin that separates by itself from the hands, lips, feet or any other part of the body, is pure.

Swallowing Mucus While Fasting


Q: While suffering from a cold, some mucus gathered in my mouth and I swallowed it instead of spitting it out. Was my fast valid? What about the mucus produced in throat when someone catches a cold?
A: Swallowing the mucus – before it reaches the mouth - does not make one liable to anything. However, after it reaches the mouth, one should not swallow it as obligatory caution. Upon swallowing it intentionally, one should fast again and perform kaffarah as caution.


(Yuck, says I.)


To Dine or not to Dine with Someone Who Does Not Pay Khums


Q: A friend has invited me on many occasions to dine with her. However, I recently discovered that her husband does not pay khums. Is it permissible for me to eat at someone's place that does not pay khums?
A: There is no objection to dining with them as long as you do not know that the very food that they serve is khums-liable.

Marrying a Prostitute


Q: Is it permissible to do mut‘ah with a woman who commits zina or with a prostitute?
A: It is reprehensible to marry a woman who commits zina, especially if she is known to be a prostitute.


Consequences of Temporary Marriage - especially with Virgins


Q: What is mut‘ah marriage? Is her father’s permission necessary?
A: Temporary marriage like permanent marriage is permissible and requires a marriage contract. Moreover, there is no difference between permanent marriage and temporary marriages except in some aspects of the law, such as there is no divorce in temporary marriage - it terminates with the expiration of the period. Likewise, neither spouse in a temporary marriage inherits from the other. In both permanent marriage and temporary marriages, she should not have another husband and not to be in ‘iddah for marriage with another man. If she is virgin, the permission of her father/paternal father is required based on obligatory caution.


Slaughtering Chickens with New Machines: one bismillah for group slaughter is enough


Q: While slaughtering chickens with new machines, the name of Allah is not said for each chicken due to fast work. Can we eat them?
A: For each group of them, which are slaughtered at the same time after saying bismillah, one bismillah is enough. For the next group that there is enough time to say bismillah, one should repeat bismillah.



Nuances of Shaving the Beard


Q: What is meant by jaws on which growing a beard is obligatory? Do they include the cheeks?
A: The criterion is that the common view recognizes it as a beard.

Q1402: Some men leave the hair around the chin grow, i.e., goatee, and shave the rest of the beard. What is the view on such practice?
A: The ruling on shaving part of the beard is the same as that passed on shaving the entire beard.

Q1406: As a public relations officer in one of the companies which belongs to the Islamic Republic, I have to buy and present shaving tools to the guests to shave their beards with. What should I do?
A: As a matter of caution, it is haram to buy and give to others tools to be used for shaving beards unless necessity requires it.

Q1409: Is it permissible to buy, sell, and produce shaving cream, which is mainly used for shaving the beard although it is used for other shaving purposes?
A: Should it be acknowledged that this cream is used for lawful purposes other than that of shaving the beard, there is no objection to produce and sell it for this purpose.

Q1412: Sometimes people come to me to fix their shaving machines. Since shaving the beard is haram, is it permissible for me to repair such machines?
A: Since this machine can be used for purposes other than shaving a beard, there is no harm in repairing it and getting paid for the work provided that it is not intended to be used for shaving the beard.

Working for Oppressive States


Q1351. Is it permissible for a naturalized Muslim living in the United States or Canada to join the army or to take a job with the police?  Is it permissible for such a Muslim to work in government departments, municipality, and semi-governmental institutions?
A: There is no objection to it if doing such a job does not entail any bad effect, committing a haram act, or abandoning an obligation.


Can we cheat the government?

Q1600: Can I resell the goods that I bought at a government-subsidized price for, say, three times the original price?
A: There is no harm in it provided that there is no official ban on doing so and the sale price is not exorbitant.



Attending Gatherings of Debauchery

Going to university parties that is:
Q1414: From time to time parties, attended by professors and students alike, are held in the universities in foreign countries. It goes without saying that alcoholic drinks are served in such parties. What should be the position of the students who want to attend these parties?
A: It is not permissible for anyone to attend any gathering where alcoholic drinks are consumed. You should not take part in such activities to let it be known to those people that since you are Muslim, you neither drink alcoholic drinks nor attend gatherings where such drinks are served.

Q1416: 1. What is the ruling in the matter of taking part in ceremonies where men and women attend their respective gatherings and dance and play music?
2. Is it permissible to take part in wedding parties where dancing and playing music is commonplace?


3. Should one uphold the duty of forbidding the evil where dancing is taking place, especially when the people concerned are impervious to such counsel?
4. What is the view on men and women dancing together?

A: Generally speaking, it is not permissible to dance in such a way as to arouse sexual desire, go hand-in-hand with what is haram or lead to it. Nor is it permissible when non-mahram women and men do it jointly. Whether such dancing takes place in wedding parties or in other venues is immaterial.
It is also not permissible to attend sin parties if it leads to committing haram deeds such as listening to lahwi and ravishing music that is suitable for gatherings of sin and merrymaking, or understood as supporting that which is sinful.
As for the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding evil, it ceases to be obligatory when it certainly falls on deaf ears.

Q1420: In non-Muslim countries, alcoholic beverages are normally served in seminars and conferences. Is it permissible to participate in such seminars and conferences?
A: It is not permissible to be present in any gathering where alcoholic beverages are consumed. In case of necessity, the participation should be limited to that which is necessary.


Aping the Infidels and Spreading Their Culture: Tie, Xmas, Nudity

Q: I would like to know if wearing a tie is haram?
A: It is prohibited to wear a necktie that contributes to the spreading of western culture.

Q1373: In common with Christians, some Muslims celebrate Christmas. Is there a problem in that?
A: There is no harm in celebrating the birthday of the Holy Jesus Christ (May peace be upon him and our Prophet and his pure progeny).

Q1378: What is the ruling in living in countries in which facilities for sinful acts, like nudity and listening to bad music cassettes are commonly available? What is the duty of those individuals who recently entered the age of ritual maturity there?
A: In itself, their residing and living there is no problem. However, they should avoid those acts considered haram by Islamic law. If they fail to do that, immigration to Islamic countries for them becomes obligatory.


Immigration and Political Asylum


Q1375: What is the view on seeking political asylum in foreign countries? And is it permissible to fabricate a story to achieve that goal?
A: In itself, there is no objection to seeking political asylum in non-Muslim countries provided that it does not lead to bad effects. However, it is not permissible to resort to lying and fabrication to achieve that end.


Listening to wrong views

Q1386: Some people talk about certain negative aspects and weakness within the Islamic Republic. What is the view on listening to such conversations?
A: Clearly, embarking on any action that may tarnish the image of the Islamic Republic, which is standing against infidelity and world arrogance, is not in the interest of Islam and Muslims. Accordingly, if such conversations lead to weakening of the Islamic Republic system, it is impermissible


(My comment: spare yourself and us the moral bother and stay put in Iran then!)

Medical aspects


Q1249. Is it permissible for a healthy woman for whom pregnancy is not harmful to use any of the contraceptives, such as coitus interruptus, the diaphragm, the pill, and sterilization?  And is it permissible for the husband to force his wife to use any method other than coitus interrupts?

A: In itself, there is no problem in doing contraception by way of coitus interruptus. Nor is there any objection to resorting to any other method provided that it is driven by a sensible reason, it is not considerably harmful to her health, it is done with the permission of the husband, and does not entail haram touching or looking. However, the husband has no right to force his wife to do so.

Q1251: Is it permissible for the woman to use contraceptives without the permission of her husband?
A: It is problematic.

Equality of sexes (or not):


Q1252: A man with four children underwent an operation of vasectomy, without the consent of his wife. Is he guilty for not obtaining his wife’s approval?
A: Its permissibility does not depend on the consent of the wife and he is not liable.



Autopsy and exhumation are OK, as long as it's done on non-Muslim:


Q1273: Research in heart and vascular diseases could require the physical examination of particular organs of dead people who suffered from such diseases. It is to be noted, though, that the extracted organs would be buried not later than one day or so after the examination has been carried out. Please let us know the ruling in the following matters.
1. Is it permissible if such research is carried out on the dead bodies of Muslims?
2. Is it permissible to bury the removed organs separately, i.e., not with the body they belong to?
3. Since it is rather problematic to bury the organs separately, is it permissible to bury them alongside any other dead body?

A: There is no objection to dissecting a corpse when saving a respectful life, exploring new ideas in medical science that are necessary for the society, or obtaining information regarding a disease that threatens life. However, it is obligatory not to make use of the dead body of a Muslim, where possible.



Q1277: Is it permissible to dig the graves of Muslims or non-Muslims in order to exhume the bones for training purposes in the school of medicine?

A: As to the graves of Muslims it is not permissible to do so unless there is a pressing need for the bones for medical purposes and it is impossible to obtain such bones from the graves of non-Muslims.



Don't look at my balls, I am Muslim

Q1287: Is it permissible for a military institution to examine the private parts of persons?
A: It is not permissible to uncover or to look at the private parts of other people or to force anybody to uncover the private parts in front of others unless it becomes necessary to do so, e.g., circumcision or treatment of an illness.

Q1294: Apart from her husband, is it absolutely haram for anyone, including the treating doctor, to look at the genitals of a woman?
A: It is haram for anyone other than the husband to look at the woman’s genitals. The ban includes the treating male/female doctor unless it is necessary on medical grounds.


Q1288: We have noticed the recurrence of the use of the word "necessity" as a condition to allow the examining doctor to touch or look at the body of a woman. What does it mean and what are its limits?
A: What makes it necessary to look at or touch a woman’s body is confined to what the diagnosis and treatment of the illness require. As to its limits, it is judged by the degree of the need for it.



Mirrors make good medical instruments:


Q1291: What is the ruling in the matter of a woman doctor looking directly at the genitals of another woman when she can carry this out indirectly, i.e., through a mirror?
A: If it is feasible to carry out the examination through the mirror and there is no need for her to look at the woman’s private parts or to touch it. It is not permissible.



Masturbation for science - best done by the wife:

Q1296. Is it permissible for someone to masturbate, upon a doctor’s advice, for carrying out a sperm test?
A: There is no objection to it if it is intended for medical treatment, the treatment is dependent on it, and it is not possible for his wife to do it.

Girls have a lower cut:
Q1297: Is circumcision obligatory?
A: Circumcision of boys is obligatory in itself and as a condition for the validity of tawaf in both hajj and ‘umrah.

Q1299: Is girls’ circumcision obligatory?
A: It is not obligatory.


Q1305: Is it permissible to look at the pictures of non-Muslims usually found in the books of medicine, noting that such pictures are of semi-naked men and women?
A: There is no objection to it provided it is done without questionable intents and pleasure and that no fear of bad deeds is contemplated.

Q1307: What is required of a woman in labor? And what is required of the female nursing staff insofar as the uncovering of and looking at the genitals of the woman in labor are concerned?
A: It is not permissible for the nurses to deliberately look at the private parts of a woman in labor unless it is necessary. The same goes for the doctor who should avoid looking at the body of the patient or touching it unless it is necessary. As for the woman, she should do her best to cover herself if she is aware and able to do that or to ask other people to do it for her.


Music in Islam:

Q 1058: Some bus drivers play singing and music cassettes of haram kinds, without paying any attention to advice and exhortations to turn off their cassette players. Please explain the rules to be followed in such situations and for dealing with such persons. Is it permissible to be rough with them?
A: If the conditions for forbidding evil exist, you are not liable to more than oral forbidding. In case this forbidding is not effective, it is obligatory to avoid listening to unlawful music and singing. However, if the sound reaches your ears involuntarily, you are liable to nothing.



Can we play Musical Instruments?


Q1: Which rule is applicable to buying a sitar and learning how to play on it?
A: Musical instruments which, according to the common view, are of dual - halal and haram - purpose, can be sold, bought, or used in a non-lahwi manner for lawful purposes. Instruments, which the common view regards as special to lahwi music are not permissible to be sold, bought or used.


Jihad:

Q 1042: What is the rule concerning defending Islam when it is felt to be in danger, but without the parents’ consent?
A: To defend Islam and Muslims is obligatory and does not depend upon the parent’s permission. Nevertheless, it is advisable to try to obtain their consent as far as possible.

You can kill, even Respected Persons, to save Islam:

Q 1045: If, supposedly, the preservation of the genuine Islam of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.) depends on shedding the blood of a respected soul, is it permissible to do so?
A: According to Islamic law, shedding the blood of a respected soul without any right is forbidden and contradicts the rules of genuine Islam of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s). Therefore, it does not make sense to say that the preservation of the genuine Islam depends on killing an innocent person. But if what is meant is the mukallaf’s commitment to jihad in the way of Allah, the Almighty, and defense of the genuine Islam of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s) in cases in which he may be killed, the cases differ. If the mukallaf feels, on the basis of his judgment, that the very existence of Islam is in danger, it will be obligatory for him to rise for its defense, even if there is fear of being killed.

Q 54: If the leader of Muslims declares war against the tyrant infidels or calls for jihad, whereas the marji‘ that I follow does not allow me to participate in the war, should I follow the opinion of the marji‘ or not?
A: It is obligatory to obey the edicts of the leader of Muslims with regard to public affairs of Muslim society, which includes the defense of Islam and Muslims against aggressive infidels and tyrants.



Rules Concerning the Different Types of Water


Q 69: If the lower part of qalil water that flows downward without pressure comes into contact with a najis substance, will its upper part remain pure?
A: The upper part of the flowing water will be pure if the water can be said to be flowing from a higher plane to a lower one.

Q 70: When purifying najis clothes in kurr/running water, is it necessary to wring them out; or after removing inherently najis substance, is permeation enough?
A: As per caution, they should be wrung out or shaken.


Q 72: To purify a najis carpet or the like, is it enough to apply tap water — which is connected to the city water supply pipes — to a najis area; or should the used water be extracted as well?
A: After applying piped water, removal of the used water is not necessary; rather, after the inherently najis substance has been removed, water has reached the najis area, and the used water has been removed from this area by pressing with the hand while connected to piped water; the carpet becomes pure.


Q 75: According to ruling no. 147 of Imam Khomeini’s (q.) book on Practical laws of Islam, "one should not depend on what a discriminating child says concerning purity and najasah until he becomes legally mature." This ruling involves a difficult obligation because it entails, for instance, that parents should keep cleaning their child after he goes to the toilet until the child becomes fifteen years old. What is the religious duty in this regard?
A: The statement of a child who is close to the age of shar‘i puberty is valid in this regard.

Q 79: In order to purify the bottom of one’s foot or shoes one should walk at least fifteen steps. Is this true only after removing the inherently najis material, or can the foot be purified even while the said material is there? Thus, does the bottom of one’s foot or shoes become purified when the inherently najis material is removed by walking fifteen steps?
A: When the bottom of one’s shoes / soles of feet become najis as a result of walking, one can purify them by walking almost ten steps on a dry and pure ground provided that the inherently najis substance is removed.

Q 81: Is the sun considered one of the purifying agents? If so, what are the conditions for it to purify?
A: The sun purifies the ground and all irremovable objects such as buildings, objects connected to them and/or whatever is fixed inside of them — such as timbers, doors and so forth. These things are purified by sunshine provided that at first the inherently najis substance is removed, and then they are wet and in the sun until it dries them up.

Urinary outlet (that is: penis) or: Rules of the Lavatory

Q 88: The nomadic tribes do not have sufficient water, especially during the days of their migration, for purifying the urinary outlet. Is it sufficient to purify it with wood or pebbles? And can they offer their prayers in such a situation?
A: The urinary outlet cannot be purified except by water. But if it is not possible to purify it with water, the prayer will be valid.

Q 89: What is the rule with respect to purifying the urinary outlet and the anus with qalil water?
A: For purification of the urinary outlet with qalil water it is necessary, according to caution, to wash it twice with water; and for the anus it is obligatory to wash it until the inherently najis material and its traces are removed.

The rule of Istibra: a definition first, taken from another site. Western males, take heed:

Lexical meaning of “istibra” is to exert yourself, to free yourself from something disagreeable or impure. In the Islamic branch of fiqh, it means “after urination, to make sure that there is no urine left in the urethra lest it should drop into your pants afterwards and dirty them and break your ablution.” Istibra is done by gently squeezing urine drops out of the penis, by walking up and down for a while (about twenty minutes), or by lying on your left-hand side for a while.

Now comes the question:

Q 91: Occasionally, after urinating and doing istibra’, wetness similar to urine comes out involuntarily. Is it najis or pure? And, if one notices the problem by chance after a while, what is the rule concerning the prayers he has performed earlier? Is it obligatory in the future to examine this wetness, which comes out involuntarily?
A: The wetness that comes out after doing istibra’, about which one doubts whether it is urine or not, is not considered urine. It is to be considered pure, and it is not obligatory to do any investigation in this case


Deviation of a toilet:

Q 93: A toilet seat was fixed in a direction totally different from the direction believed to be that of the qiblah. After some time it was known that the direction of the toilet seat is deviated with 20 to 22 degrees from the direction of the qiblah. Is it obligatory to change the direction of the toilet seat or not?
A: Assuming the deviation from the direction of qiblah is enough to be considered a deviation, there is no problem.

Q 95: How is istibra’ done before purifying anus?
A: There is no difference between performing it before or after purifying anus.

Muslim toilet paper:

Q 98: How could the excretory outlet (anus) be made pure?
A: The excretory outlet could be made pure through two methods. First: washing it with water until the najis material removed after which there would be no need for further washing. Second: remove the najis material with three pure pieces of stone, clothes or the likes. If the najis material is not removed with these three pieces, more pieces could be used until the najis material is completely removed. Instead of three pieces, one could use three sites of the same piece of stone or cloth.

Washing the face: twice only allowed:

Q 101: I have been told that one can pour only two handfuls of water on the face during wud?u’, and a third one will invalidate the wudu’, is that correct?
A: Washing wud?u’ parts is obligatory for the first time and permissible for the second time. But it invalidates wud?u’ if it is done for the third time. The criterion in determining each time is one’s intention. Therefore if somebody pours two or more handfuls of water on his face as the first time, there is nothing wrong with it.

Tips of the toes also important:
Q 104: For some time I was not wiping the tips of my toes while performing the wiping in wud?u’. I was only wiping the upper surface of the foot and part of the toes. Is this wiping valid? In case of invalidity, is it obligatory for me to repeat the prayers that I have performed with such wudu’?
A: If the tips of the toes are not covered in the wiping process, the wudu’ is invalid and it is obligatory to repeat all the prayers offered with such wudu’. But in case that one knew the ruling and it is possible that he/she was wiping the tips of the toes during wiping, the wudu’s and the prayers offered with them are ruled to be correct.

Pumps are not good for wudu:

Q 108: Although the city water supply department interdicted installation of pumps in the pipeline, in some places water pressure is so low that people in higher stories are forced to use pumps. Considering the abovementioned situation, please provide us with the answer to the following questions:
i. According to Islam, is it permissible to install pumps in order to use more water?
ii. If it is not permissible, what is the ruling in regard to performing wudu’ and ghusl with water got through a pump?
A: In the given question, it is not permissible to install and use a pump. Furthermore, performing wudu’ and ghusl with water obtained through a pump is problematic.

The right sequence of events when using a tap:
Q 111: If someone who performs wudu’ opens and closes the faucet while washing his hands and face with the intent of wudu’, what is the ruling concerning this act?
A: There is no problem in doing so and it does not harm the validity of the wudu’. However, after washing the left hand and before performing the wiping, if one puts his hand on the wet faucet and the water used for wudu’ in the hand is mixed with water which was not used for wudu’, the validity of wiping with this water becomes problematic.

Washing in socks or while wearing polish - not good enough:

Q 113: Some women claim that fingernail polish does not create a hindrance for the wudu’ and that it is permissible to do wiping over transparent socks. What is your opinion?
A: If the fingernail polish has a substance that prevents water from reaching the nails, the wudu’ is void, and wiping performed on socks is incorrect, however transparent they may be.

Praying while farting. Or maybe the other way around:
Q 127: What is the duty of a person suffering from continuous discharge of gas, though in a small amount, regarding wudu’ and prayers?
A: If he cannot keep his wudu’ until the end of the prayer, and the renewal of wudu’ during the prayer is so difficult, he can pray only one prayer with each wudu’. That is, for each prayer the performance of one wudu’ is sufficient, though it would become invalid during the prayer.

Wudu-related differences between men and women:

Q 145: Please state the difference between the wudu’ of men and women.
A: There is no difference between men and women in respect of the acts of wudu’ and its procedure. However, it is mustahabb for men while washing the elbow to begin with its outer side, and for women to begin with its inner side.




On Touching the Names

Can you touch the letter A without doing wudu? Yes you can. Not sure about B, though:
Q 147: It has been usual to write ‘A.’ instead of the name of ‘Allah,’ what is the rule with respect to touching this letter without wudu’?
A: The rule concerning Allah’s names does not apply to the ‘A.’, i.e. touching it without wudu’ is no problem.
(Useful, isn't it? Now, you infidels, do not dare to touch the name of ALLAH here in front of you. Ooops, I touched the screen...)


Q 149: Is it permissible to abstain from writing the Name of ‘Allah’ or to write it as ‘Al...’ just for the probability that it might be touched by someone without wudu’?
A: There is no objection to doing so.

Don't touch the name of ABDULLAH either:
Q 151: What is the rule concerning touching such names as Abdullah and habibullah without wudu’?
A: It is not permissible for one who is not in a state of purity to touch the name of Allah, even if it is a part of a compound name.

Women should not wear Allah during menstruation, unless he is levitating on them:
Q 152: Is it permissible for women, during their menstrual period, to wear a necklace engraved with the blessed name of the Prophet (s.)?
A: There is no objection to hanging it around the neck, though based on obligatory caution the name should not touch the body.

Don't touch Allah, revisited:
Q 153: Is the prohibition of touching the words of the Noble Qur’an without purity limited to the case where they are in the sacred scripture, or is it haram, although they are found in other books, tableaux, walls, etc.?
A: It is not limited to the sacred scripture. Rather, it also includes the Qur’anic words and verses written in other books, newspapers, magazines, tableaux, etc.
(now, it explains the ruckus about Christian Bibles using the word Allah and Christians dying for it)

Eating on Allah plates - proceed with caution. Or with spoons:
Q 154: A family uses a dish for eating rice on which Qur’anic verses, such as The Verse of Ayah al-Kursi inscribed for the sake of blessing. Is there any problem in this?
A: If they are touching it with wudu’ or using spoons for eating, there will be no problem.

Infallible Imams are next in line. You can type them but not touch afterwards. Unless you are wudu:
Q 155: Is it obligatory for persons engaged in typing, with typewriter, the Divine Names, or the verses of the Holy Qur’an or the names of the Infallible Imams (a.) to have wudu’?
A: Purity is not a condition for this work, but it is not permissible for them to touch the printed items without wudu’.
(Now, the typewriter should also be wudu, don't you think? Allah, Allah, Allah - touch the words if you dare, you infidels...)

Don't touch the flag. Or did somebody mention burning it? :
Q 156: Is it haram to touch the emblem of the Islamic Republic of Iran without wudu’?
A: If the emblem of the Islamic Republic is, as per common view, considered and read as the exalted name of Allah, then touching it without wudu’ is forbidden. Otherwise, there is no problem, although based on caution it is better not to touch it without wudu’.

Don't touch the stamps either:
Q 158: What is the rule concerning using postal stamps on which verses of the Noble Qur’an or the Name of Allah or other Names of Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, are written, or to print the emblems of institutions containing verses of the Noble Qur’an in newspapers, magazines and publications that are published every day?
A: There is no problem in printing and publishing Qur’anic verses, the name ‘Allah’, or the like. But, it is obligatory for whoever handles them to observe the related rules of Islamic law and to refrain from dealing with them irreverently or making them najis or touching them without wudu’.


Now, should we throw away the papers that do NOT contain the word Allah? One has to be careful of partly blank papers :
Q 162: Is it obligatory while throwing corrected exam papers in the garbage or while burning them to ascertain that they do not contain the names of Allah, the Exalted, and those of the Infallibles (a.)? Is it considered extravagance to throw away papers with one blank page (i.e. only one page is used)?
A: It is not obligatory to investigate, and when you are not sure whether it includes the name of Allah, the Exalted, there is no objection to throwing it in the garbage. However, as to papers that are partly blank, and can be used for writing upon them or can be used for manufacturing cardboard, burning them and throwing them away which may amount to extravagance, is not free of problems.

Great prophets join Infallible Imams and Allah in wudu:
Q 163: What are the sacred names whose veneration is obligatory and which it is unlawful to touch without wudu’?
A: It is haram to touch the names and attributes special to Allah, the Gracious, without wudu’. And obligatory caution lies in applying the same rule to the names of the Great Prophets and the Infallible Imams (a.).



Ghusl needed in the case of penetration but without orgasm:

Q 169: If penetration of only the glans occurs with no ejaculation of semen and the woman has not reached orgasm, is ghusl obligatory for her, him, or both?
A: If penetration occurs, even of the glans only, ghusl will be obligatory for both of them.


Religious consequences of women's orgasm:
Q 170: (...) Is the discharge that comes out at the time of caressing and foreplay considered mani? And is it obligatory for them to perform ghusl despite the fact that they do not have an orgasm or do not feel weakness in the body? In general, when do women become junub without intercourse?
A: When a woman reaches orgasm and a fluid is discharged from her, she becomes junub and ghusl of janabah becomes obligatory for her. But if she doubts whether she reached such a stage or not or whether the discharge came out or not, ghusl would not be obligatory for her.

When semen is semen:
Q 176: When is a discharge from a male considered to be semen?
A: When it is accompanied by sexual excitement, weakness of the body and ejaculation, it is subject to the rule of semen.

Q 179: Is the discharge occurring during sleep considered semen if it is not accompanied with the three signs (ejaculation, sexual excitement, and weakness of the body) and it is not noticed except after awakening and observing wetness on one’s underclothing?
A: If all the three signs of discharging semen or one of them does not exist or you are doubtful about it, the discharged moisture is not ruled as semen unless you are certain in one way or another that it is semen.

Consequences of aquaphobia on sex and salvation:
Q 181: I am faced with a problem, i.e. even a single drop of water is so harmful for my body that even it should not be wiped. While washing my body, even a part of it, my heartbeat increases along with other symptoms. Is it permissible for me in such a condition to have intercourse with my wife, to do tayammum instead of ghusl for several months, and to pray and enter the masjid with this tayammum?
A: It is not obligatory for you to refrain from intercourse and after becoming junub, if you are excused from performing ghusl of janabah, your shar‘i duty is to do tayammum instead of ghusl for the acts that require ghusl. And with tayammum, there is no impediment to your entering a masjid, offering prayer, touching the script of the Noble Qur’an and all the other acts that require ghusl.

Quickie sex without water more important than complete purity:
Q 189: One knows that if he becomes junub by having intercourse with his wife, he would have no water for the ghusl or there would not be enough time for both ghusl and prayers, is it permissible for him to have intercourse?
A: Although it is not possible for him to make ghusl, there is no objection to having intercourse with his wife if he is able to perform tayammum.

Problem of long hair:
Q 192: Is it obligatory for women to wash all the hair during ghusl? And if water does not reach all the hair in ghusl does it make the ghusl invalid, even if one knows that water has reached the entire scalp?
A: It is an obligatory caution to wash the whole hair.


Sad consequences of jerking off. 

You do not go blind, but:
Q 194: A youth has been masturbating due to ignorance before reaching fourteen and after. As he did not know that discharging semen makes him junub and he is required to do ghusl for praying and fasting, he did not perform the ghusl after the discharge of semen. What is his duty? Is it obligatory for him to perform the ghusls of this period during which he was masturbating and had seminal discharge? Are all his prayers and fasts made during this period and until now invalid and should he repeat them?
A: A single ghusl of janabah is sufficient for all the past discharges of semen. And it is obligatory for him to make qad?a’ of all prayers he is certain he offered in the state of janabah. As to the fasts, if he did not know, the nights before, that he was junub, he would not be obliged to make up these fasts and they would be ruled as valid. But if he knew that he had had a discharge of semen and had been junub without knowing that ghusl is necessary for the validity of his fast, it would be obligatory for him to make qad?a’ of the days he had fasted in the state of janabah.

The wrong sequence of washing:
Q 197: I used to do ghusl of janabah in this order: first, the right side of the body, then the head, and thirdly the left side. What is my duty in regard to the prayers I offered and the fasts I kept, taking into consideration that I had dealt with this issue with negligence and did not ask and investigate about it?
A: ghusl performed in the mentioned manner is invalid and does not remove the state of janabah. Accordingly, the prayers performed with such a ghusl are invalid and making their qad?a’ is obligatory. As for the fasts, they are considered valid as you believed that ghusl in the said manner was valid and you had not remained junub intentionally.


No skeletons of Muslims in museums allowed. Christian infidels are fair game though:

Q 232: Recently a woman’s skeleton was discovered in an ancient grave dating back to about seven hundred years. It is big and in an intact state with some hair on the skull. According to the archeologists who discovered it, it is the body of a Muslim woman. Is it permissible for this immense and extraordinary corpse to be displayed by the Museum of Natural Sciences (after repairing the grave and placing the body in it) for the visitors for educational purposes, or to serve as a reminder by displaying it with suitable verses and traditions.
A: If it is confirmed that this skeleton belongs to a Muslim, it is obligatory to bury it again, immediately.

By the same token:
... However, it is necessary, as far as it is possible to dissect a non-Muslim’s body, not to dissect a Muslim’s cadaver. As to the organs removed from a Muslim corpse, the rules of Islamic law say that they should be buried along with the body.

The use of chains during Muslim funerals:
Q 241: It is customary in our region to perform the traditional chest beating and hitting with chains only during mourning ceremonies of the virtuous Imams (a.s.), martyrs, and major religious figures. Is it permissible to perform these rituals on the death of such persons who belonged to Voluntary Forces or those who were engaged in providing some kind of service to the Islamic government and the Muslim nation?
A: There is no problem in doing so.


The dead

You can touch dead body parts only when they are still warm:
Q 251: Does touching an organ or body part which has been separated from a dead body obligate performing of ghusl of touching a corpse?
A: If the touching of this organ is made after it became cold and before it is washed as corpse ghusl, it has the same ruling as that of touching a dead body.

... but teeth do not count:
Q 253: When a tooth is extracted, some tissue of the gum also comes out with it. Does touching this tissue require performance of the ghusl of touching a corpse?
A: Ghusl does not become obligatory in this case.

Cementeries are here to stay forever. If they are Muslim of course:
Q 261: Please mention if there is a way to demolish a cemetery belonging to Muslims and converting it into other centers, and please explain it.
A: It is not permissible to change and transform a Muslim cemetery endowed for the burial of Muslims.

The sorry consequences of pro-active mourning:
Q 266: During a mourning ceremony for Imam husayn (a.) a person strikes his head forcefully against the wall and blood gushes out splashing on the heads and faces of other participants in the ceremony. Is this blood pure?
A: Human blood is najis in all circumstances.

Pigs in fine arts:

Q 273: In view of the use of brushes in painting and sketching, and considering that good quality brushes are imported from non-Islamic countries and are often made of pig’s hair and are accessible to all, especially in cultural and propagational centers, what is the legal rule regarding using such brushes?
A: Pig’s hair is najis and its use is not permissible in situations where purity is required by Islamic law; but there is no problem in using it where purity is not necessary. Further, if it is not known whether the brush is made of pig’s hair or not, there is no problem in its use even in cases where purity is required.

If a bird shits on you, you are still clean. If you were in luck about the kind of the bird that shat upon you, that is:

Q 278: Are the droppings of a bird whose meat is not halal, like that of a crow, an eagle, or a parrot, najis?
A: They are not najis.

When shoes are always pure:

Q 283: When using leather shoes, the leather for which was made from an animal that was not ritually slaughtered, is it obligatory to wash one’s feet every time before performing wudu’? Some say: It is necessary to do so if the feet perspire in the shoes. And I have observed that the feet do sweat, either slightly or profusely, in all kinds of shoes. What is your opinion on this issue?
A: If a person is sure that his shoes are made of an animal’s skin which was not slaughtered ritually or he is sure that his feet have perspired in such shoes, it is obligatory for him to wash his feet for the purpose of praying. But in case of doubt about the sweating of the feet or whether or not that leather is obtained from a ritually slaughtered animal, the feet are ruled to be pure.

Islamic dentistry - treatment of gum disease:

Q 285: I am suffering from a gum disease and in the doctor’s opinion I must constantly massage it. But doing so leads to parts of the gums turning black and it looks as if blood has collected inside them, and when I place a tissue paper on them it becomes red. Therefore, I use kurr water to purify my mouth, though the blood that has clotted remains for some time and does not disappear on washing. Now, after contact with kurr water is broken, will the water that enters the mouth and is spitted out from the mouth, after passing over these parts and contacting with particles of blood clotted in the gums, be considered najis? Or will it be considered saliva and so clean?
A: It is considered pure, though it is better, according to caution, to abstain from it.

When vomits are pure

Q 296: Please elucidate the legal rule concerning the following from the point of view of purity and najasah: The vomit (a) of a breast-fed child; (b) of a breast-fed child that is also given supplementary diet; (c) of an adult.
A: It is pure in all these instances.


Should we ask the street vendor his religion before eating?

Q 298: In an Islamic country a foreign person, whose religion is unknown, sells food items and touches it in the presence of transmitting moisture. Is it obligatory to ask him about his religion, or will the principle of presuming a state of purity apply?
A: It is not obligatory to ask about his religion and the principle of presuming state of purity will be applicable in respect to him as well as the food he touches in the presence of transmitting moisture.

Kefirs are suspicious

Q 305: There is a substance called ‘kafir’ which is used in food and medical industries, and during fermentation 5% to 8% alcohol is found in the produced material, and this small quantity of alcohol does not cause any kind of intoxication. Is there any problem from the shar‘i viewpoint in using this substance?
A: If the alcohol in the product is intoxicating by itself, it is najis and haram by obligatory caution, even if it is not intoxicating for the consumer due to its small quantity or as it is mixed with the produced item. But if there is a doubt as to its being intoxicant in itself or as to its being originally a liquid, the rule is different.


Religious obsession about cleanliness:

Q 310: It is several years that I am suffering from the problem of obsessive doubting, and it has really been tormenting me. Day by day this state is becoming more severe and has reached such a point that I suspect everything and my whole life is affected with doubt, mostly in relation to food and wet things. As a result, I am unable to behave like ordinary people. When I enter a place I remove my socks immediately because I think that they have become wet by sweat and will become najis on coming into contact with a najasah. I am even unable to sit on the prayer mat, and when I do sit, I stand up immediately lest the minute fibers of the prayers mat should stick to my clothes compelling me to clean them with water. Earlier I was not like this, and now I feel embarrassed by my conduct and always long to see someone in my dream to put my questions to him or hope for a miracle to change my life and take me back to my previous state. Please enlighten me.

Q 311: I am a postgraduate woman with several children. I am suffering from a problem concerning purity. In view of the fact that I have been raised within a religious family and want to observe all Islamic regulations and since I have young children, I am always busy with the affairs of urine and excrement. Especially in the toilet, the water drops of the flash-tanks, etc sprinkles on my leg, face, and even head and every time I face a problem of purifying these body parts a matter that created many difficulties in my life and I cannot stop observing such matters since it is something related to my faith and religion. I consulted a psychologist in the matter, but in vain. In addition, there are some other problems that I suffer from, like the dust of the najis things and being too concerned about purifying the najis hands of the children or to prevent them from touching other things. To purify something najis is a very difficult job for me, while it is easy for me to wash the same vessels and clothes when they are just dirty. Thus, I request your valuable advice to make my life easier.

A:  i. The point of view of the sacred laws of Islam regarding the subject of purity and najāsah is that purity is fundamental for all thing. This means that in all situations if you feel any doubt whether something has become najis or not, you should assume that it has not.
ii. Those who suffer from a severe psychological sensitivity in respect to najāsah matters (who are called obsessive as an Islamic term) should consider that not everything is najis even if they become sure that it is najis. This is true except when they see with their eyes that a certain thing becomes najis, in such a way that if another person saw it, he would become sure about najāsah transference. It is only in such situations the obsessive people may assume this thing as najis. Those individuals should keep on acting upon this ruling until this psychological problem is completely cured.
iii. For any thing or body part that becomes najis, it is sufficient, after removing the inherently najis material, to wash it once with tap water for making it pure and there is no need for repeated washing or dipping it into water. If the najis thing is a cloth or the like, it would be squeezed to the accepted degree, according to the common view, to remove water from it. [...]

Should we wash Bhuddist hotels and houses?

Q 320: The vast majority of people here are Buddhist non-Muslims. Therefore if a university student rents a house, what is the rule concerning its state of purity and najasah? Is it necessary to wash and clean the house? It is noteworthy that most of the houses are made of wood and to wash them is not possible. Further, what is the rule concerning hotels and their furniture and articles?
A: Unless it is confirmed that the hand or body of a non-Muslim that is not among The People of the Book has touched something in the presence of transferable wetness, that thing will not be considered najis. Presuming that its najasah has been ascertained, it is not obligatory to purify the doors and walls of homes and hotels, nor their furniture and articles. All that is obligatory is to purify those things which are used for eating, drinking, and praying.


Can a Muslim work for a Jew?

Q 323: What is the rule pertaining to working for Jews, Christians, and other non-Muslims, and taking wages from them?
A: There is no objection to doing so by itself, provided the work is not among the haram works or detrimental to the general interests of Islam and Muslims.

Wealthy communists in the family and the problems they create:

Q 326: One of our relatives is a communist, and when we were children he gave us a lot of money and gifts. What is the rule concerning the money and gifts if they are still with us?
A: If he is proved to be a non-Muslim, his apostasy has been confirmed and he had chosen the path of infidelity after attaining shar‘i puberty but before confessing faith in Islam, the rule that applies to the wealth of the non-Muslims will apply to his wealth.


Social Intercourse with the Deviant Baha’i Sect


Q: What is Allah’s ordinance regarding the deviant Baha’i sect in cases of car, furniture, flower and the like which have nothing to do with purity or najasah?
A: Any sort of social intercourse with the deviant and misleading Baha’i sect should be avoided.

Don't eat with the Bahai:

Q 329: At times the followers of the deviant Baha’i sect bring us food or something else. Is it permissible for us to use them?
A: Any sort of social association with the deviant and misleading Baha’i sect should be avoided.


Q 330: A large number of Baha’is live in our neighborhood and often visit our home. Some say that the Baha’is are najis while others consider them as pure. These Baha’is also exhibit good morals. Are they najis or pure?
A: they are najis and enemies of your religion and faith. So you should beware of them, my dear friends.

Non-Muslims in the bus, their perspiration and the bad atmosphere it creates:

Q 331: What is the rule pertaining to the bus and train seats which are used by Muslims as well as non-Muslims, and in some areas the number of non-Muslims is greater than that of Muslims. Should they be considered pure despite the knowledge that perspiration in hot weather leads to transferable wetness?
A: Among non-Muslims, the People of the Book are ruled to be pure. In general, in respect with the things used by both non-Muslims and Muslims, they are considered pure unless their najasah is known.


Dealing with non-Muslims


Q1345: Should Israeli goods be available on the open market in a Muslim country, can Muslims buy them, especially when it is possible to buy other goods imported form other countries?
A: It is incumbent on every Muslim to refrain from buying and making use of goods, production and sale of which would benefit the Zionists who are at war with Islam and Muslims.



Why it is better to be Christian and not e.g. Hindu, in the Muslim world:


Q 312: Some mujtahids are of the opinion that the People of the Book are najis, while some others consider them pure. What is your opinion?
A: It is not established that the People of the Book are najis themselves; rather, we consider them as pure by themselves.



Full beaver not allowed

Q: What is the area of shaving the pubic hair for a male and female?
A: The area immediately under the navel is not to be shaven.
The area of shaving for a person (male / female) is above and around the
private parts. If possible, it is commendable to shave around the hind
private parts as well. (Al-Kaamil, commentary of Muslim; Imaam Nawawi vol. 1
pg. 128).

Yes, it is obligatory for women to remove pubic hair.
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best



Recitation when breastfeeding, for non-hayds and non-nifas


A: It is permissible for a woman to recite Surah Yaseen while she breastfeeds her child on condition she is not in the state of haydh or nifaas.

Frames with surahs

A: A frame containing the meaning of Surah Fatihah can be kept hung on the wall of your room, even though you change or study books that may contain pictures of people therein.


Feet and sleep

Q: It is true that the feet should not face the direction of the ka?bah whilst sleeping. 

A: In fact, it is not permissible to face the feet towards the ka?bah whether a person is sleeping or awake. (Shaami vol.1 pg.655; HM Saeed)
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Q: How should we rub our feet and sleep?
A: 1. There is no prohibition in rubbing one?s feet before sleeping.
2. It is undesirable to sleep on one?s belly.

Piss

Q: Can one urinate standing?
A: It is not permissible to stand and urinate as this is now the culture of the Kuffaar. However, if one does urinate standing due to necessity and cleans himself with toilet paper, he will be excused provided the urine does not splash on his clothing or body.

Vagina rings

Q: There r vaginal rings for contraception which is left in vagina for 3 weeks and taken out for one week and then repeated again.
A: According to Shariah if the rings are kept in the private part while fasting, the fast is valid. However, if the ring is inserted or removed while fasting, the fast will be nullified. Therefore, it must be inserted or removed after Iftaar or before the expiry of sehri time. (Nurul Iddah Pg. 146)

Eyebrows

Q: Can we pluck the eyebrows?
A: Mullah Ali Qari (R.A) has commentated that plucking of the facial hair is haraam (prohibited) for a woman with the exception of moustache or beard hairs, if any woman is unfortunate enough to be troubled by these. (Mirqaat Vol.8 Pg.295; Ashrafiyyah).

However, if the eyebrows have become so dense that it is unseemly for a woman and incites abhorrence in her husband, it is permissible to trim it to a more appropriate and normal size. (Ahsanul Fataawa Vol.8 pg.76; Zakariyya Book Depot)

Masturbation

Q: My husband has recently moved to a different state for work, sometimes I masturbate ?is it a sin even though I am married? Thank you for answering my question
A: Yes, it is a sin even though you are married. Your husband living in another state does not justify your action.

Hijab

Q: I want to know what are the requirements for woman to wear a hijab? She needs to know the Quran by heart, needs to know 10 or 20 surah? Be good to everyone? What are the requirements?

A: It is compulsory for every woman to conceal the beauty, form and shape of her body in front of non-Mahrams (men who are not prohibited for her in marriage). She should wear lose clothing which do not have attractive colours. This ruling of Hijaab is for every woman irrespective of her knowing the entire Qur?aan or part of the Qur?aan and whether she is good at all or not.
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best

Q:  When I am indoors by myself or with my husaband, is it necessary for me to cover my head.

Q: As someone has told me there are two angels watching me and satan is with me aswell and i must keep my head covered at all times eve when there are no other males present. Is this true?

A: ...However, it is advisable to have your head covered even if you are alone with your husband. It is true that every one has angels around him/her. The angels should be respected.


On the sex with hoors in Muslim heaven

Q: Will the hoors in Jannah be mindless robots made only for one thing (sex) or will they be like women of the earth with feelings , thoughts and moodswings?

A: The purpose of Jannat is to reward sincere servants of Allah. Among the
rewards of Allah in Jannah, one will be the Hoors. They will be a means of
comfort and peace to the dwellers of Jannah. For that, they will have to be
intelligent as well as considerate. Comfort and peace cannot be attained
through a woman who is 'a mindless robbot'. Imagine being with a beautiful
woman but insane. No person in a sound state of mind will even approach her.
How can that be expected of the Hoors of Jannah, being the queens created by
Allah to grant comfort to His sincere servants.





OK, I've head enough of Shia clerics.



And here comes a fatwa from Sunni experts in religious morality this time:

Child thighing aka how to properly fuck infants according to Allah wishes


"Thighing: Fatwa Number 41409 dated 7-5-1421 that is August 8, 2000"

The permanent committee for scientific research and religious sanctions [in Saudi Arabia] :

... As for the thighing of the messenger of God to his fiancee Ayesha, she was six years old and he could not engage in sexual intercourse with her because of her young age, therefore he used to place his penis between her thighs and rub it lightly. In addition, the messenger of God had full control of his penis in contrary to the believers. Therefore, it is not permitted to practice thighing, whether in weddings, or at homes, or schools, due to its grave harm. And may God curse the infidels who brought these practices to our countries.

You do not believe it? I find it hard to process too.
Source 1 (with photo): Thighing of infants

Source 2: Unmasking Muhamad's Life, Joseph Shafi, self-published