2015-12-21

Censored Wikipedia article: Racial segregation in Liberia until 1940s

1.0.2
 
Yet another Wikipedia article: Racial Segregation got partially censored by PC-minded contributors boycotting the consensus-building process, that is by not engaging in discussion but rerereverting.

The relevant historical cases of segregation section that I wrote, gone for good by now in all the official Wikipedia copies, claimed:


In Liberia in the period of 1847 to 1940, the tiny (0.6 percent by the 1960s[54]) elite of Americo-Liberians created communities and social infrastructure closely based on American society, maintaining their English-speaking, Americanized way of life, and building churches and houses resembling those of the southern United States, dominating the native Africans[55] and also transplanting the then popular concepts of racial segregation[56]. To maintain the essense of their superiority, the Americo-Liberians practiced segregations and discrimination over the native Africans, who were kept in their place and lived in separate tribal enclaves. They sat separately during political meetings, church services and public gatherings. Native Africans could not marry nor have an affair with Americo-Liberian women[57] and were refused full citizenship[58][59].
with the referenced scholarly sources that I imagined to support such claims.

The only non-ad hominem and non-procedural argument against these was that the sources don't say so: "you already know that your addition cites a bunch of sources that contain nothing even mistakable for support of the claims you added.", etc.

After trying to add additional scholarly references such as:
Pre-civil war Liberia was not only racially stratified but was also racially segregated.... The study reveals that non-enforcement of existing laws coupled with racial/ethnic and gender discrimination were a problem in the country ... [From: International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice Volume 37, Issue 1, 2013
with the key term contained in them or the relevant statistics:

[The American protestants] build up African [Protestant] churches [...] charges that missionaries were mealy-mouthed about social injustice...  [the tiny elite in Liberia counted] 0.6 percent in the 1960 [and the Americo-Liberian immigrants were] practicing exclusion [of the natives] [From:  Elite Cultures: Anthropological Perspectives].
this section was expunged altogether and worse. 
 
I wonder when this current version of History of Liberia, stating the same for years, will be fully censored, too:

The Americo-Liberians created communities and social infrastructure closely based on what they knew - American society. They spoke English, built churches and houses in styles resembling those they were familiar with in the southern United States. Although they never constituted more than five percent of the population of Liberia ([The American protestants] build up African [Protestant] churches [...] were mealy-mouthed about social injustice [the tiny elite in Liberia counted] 0.6 percent in the 1960 [and the Americo-Liberian immigrants were] practicing exclusion [of the natives], they controlled key resources that allowed them to dominate the local native peoples: access to the ocean, modern technical skills, literacy and higher levels of education, and valuable relationships with many United States institutions, including the American government.[11]
Reflecting the system of racial segregation in the United States, the Americo-Liberians created a cultural and racial caste system with themselves at the top and indigenous Liberians at the bottom.[12][13][14] They believed in a form of racial equality by which meant that all residents of Liberia had the potential of to become "civilized" through conversion to Christianity and western-style education.


The Native Americans section of Racial discrimination also got the chop, because of the alleged copyright violation by copying from the main Blood quantum laws Wikipedia's (!) article (as indicated in the above comment itself where it came from).

I am thus recreating it here from the archive before it fully disappears:

2.10 Native Americans


Main article: Blood quantum laws
Each federally recognized Native American tribe in the USA has established its own criteria for membership.[132] Given the new revenues that many tribes are realizing from gambling casinos and other economic development, or from settlement of 19th-century land claims, some have established more restrictive rules to limit membership.
Such actions have led to charges of racial injustice and controversies such as that of the Cherokee Nation's 2007 vote to exclude those Cherokee Freedmen with no Indian ancestors on the Cherokee-by-blood Dawes rolls, although the Cherokee Supreme Court ruled in 2005 that they were legitimate members of the tribe in 2005. Similarly, in 2000, the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma attempted to exclude two bands of Seminole Freedmen from membership to avoid including them in settlement of land claims in Florida, where Seminole Freedmen had also owned land taken by the US government.[133][134]
Since 1942, the Seminole have at times tried to exclude Black Seminoles from the tribe. The freedmen were listed separately on the Dawes Rolls and suffered segregation in Oklahoma. More recently, the Seminole refused to share with them the revenues of 20th-century US government settlements of land claims. The Center for Constitutional Rights has filed an amicus brief, taking up the legal case of the Black Seminoles and criticizing some officials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs for collaborating in this discrimination by supporting tribal autonomy in lawsuits. By treaty, after the American Civil War, the Seminole were required to emancipate slaves and provide Black Seminoles with all the rights of full-blood Indian members.[134]

Let us see how these articles fare there against the prevailing PC winds...


References

  1. "Liberia and Sierra Leone: an essay in comparative politics". African Affairs 76 (303): 265–267. 1977-04-01. ISSN 0001-9909.
  2. Nugent, Stephen; Shore, Cris (2003-12-16). Elite Cultures: Anthropological Perspectives. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 9781134471201.
  3. Upchurch, Thomas Adams (2015-01-13). Legislating Racism: The Billion Dollar Congress and the Birth of Jim Crow. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813156385.
  4. Dennis, Benjamin G.; Dennis, Anita K. (2008-01-01). Slaves to Racism: An Unbroken Chain from America to Liberia. Algora Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 9780875866581.
  5. History of West Africa 2. 2. London: Longman. 1974-01-01. ISBN 0582645190.
  6. Akpan, M. B. (1973-01-01). "Black Imperialism: Americo-Liberian Rule over the African Peoples of Liberia, 1841-1964". Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines 7 (2): 217–236. doi:10.2307/483540.
     
     
  1. Russell Thornton (2008). "Tribal Membership Requirements and the Demography of "Old" and "New" Native Americans". The National Academies Press. Retrieved 2009-09-02.
  2. Evans, Ben. "Dems ask DoJ to probe treatment of Indian freedmen."[dead link] Indian Country Today. 8 May 2009 (retrieved 20 April 2010)
  3. Jeff Fogel, Barbara Olshansky, and Shayana Kadidal (2008). "CCR Files Amicus Brief on Behalf of Black Seminoles". Center for Constitutional Rights. Retrieved 2009-08-15.

1 comment:

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